Scientific Report - Dov Chernichovsky

The conventional wisdom is that because at any time the aged cost more than the young, there is a positive relationship between aging and health care spending. It is hard, however, to find evidence that aging correlates positively with such spending. Intrigued by the puzzle, we account for the factors that contribute to changes of the age distribution of medical costs and their potential effect on aggregate cost. As changes in costs are not age neutral, the health system needs to facilitate a dynamic shift of resources from those whose relative cost rise less -- the young -- to those whose relative costs rise more -- the old. As there is an apparent market failure associated with uncertainty about growth in longevity (no market for 'death insurance'), the private market does not seem to effectively facilitate this shift. Aging, and its known correlates and antecedents produce a complex picture about the potential effect of aging on total cost of medical care in Israel. Shifting morbidity and mortality to older age can lower cost of care, all other things equal. Growth in incomes and insurance coverage are likely to increase use of care particularly amongst the old. Rising levels of education would have the opposite effect, but among the relatively young. The effect of a key element, technology, remains unknown. The Israeli experience also points to the advantages of a unified publicly financed health system with a timely allocation mechanism.

Abstract

This paper discusses the recent decline in the population growth rate of Indonesia whch has been achieved at a relatively low level of income and socio-economic development. Evidence is presented of this decline which is largely attributed to the fall in the total fertility rate in Java-Bali. The much higher growth rate of population in the Outer Islands remains a matter of concern and the paper accordingly focuses on differences between Java-Bali and the Outer Islands. The paper reviews the history and organization of the family planning program in Indonesia, attempts to identify those factors which have been responsible for its success and to assess its prospects for the future. It then presents the results of a multivariate analysis, using data from the 1976 Intercensal Population Survey, which attempts to explain fertility behavior and family planning practice by socio-economic factors as well as the availability of family planning services.

  • Country: Indonesia
  • # Pages: 75
  • Publication Year: 1981
  • Type of Media: Scientific Report

Abstract

The paper examines household members' labor inputs into different income-earning activities and the contributions of household members in different age-sex categories in terms of hours worked and household incomes. It analyses the determinants of household members' labor force participation and also the role of supplementary workers and of secondary jobs. The study uses data from the second (May) round of the National Socio-economic Survey of 1978, which collected information on more than 6,000 households members. The paper notes the great reliance of households on nonfarm sources of income, even in rural areas. When households are categorized by groups of sources of income, the group which is worst off is consists of nonfarm households in rural areas. From this evidence the paper concludes that farm household members are more likely to engage in off-farm activities when farm enterprise income is less adequate for their living requirements. In order to raise the income levels of households, government policy should be directed to various ways of raising farm productivity, and in addition, to encouraging nonfarm households enterprises in both urban and rural areas.

  • Country: Indonesia
  • # Pages: 27
  • Publication Year: 1984
  • Type of Media: Scientific Report
  • Country: Indonesia
  • # Pages: 28
  • Publication Year: 1985
  • Type of Media: Scientific Report
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