Scientific Report - Dov Chernichovsky

Abstract

Lack of food is no longer the major cause of malnutrition. Many households and individuals remain malnourished when income and supplies of food are adequate. Nutrition policy and programs must be based on a sound knowledge of household behaviour patterns . The microeconomic theory of the household focuses on the household's decisionmaking about scarce food resources based upon such considerations as: (i) the size of the family; (ii) the purchasing power of the family; (iii) the availability of healthful foods; (iv) the family's food preferences; (v) environmental variables (such as ethnic traditions and the homemaker's level of education); and finally (vi) family health (disease can limit the absorption of nutrients). Such determinants should be monitored to anticipate malnutrition problems unrelated to the food.

  • Country: India
  • # Pages: 74
  • Publication Year: 1988
  • Type of Media: Scientific Report

Abstract

The purpose of this paper is to estimate the level of consumption of food and of nutrients for the Indonesian population; to identify population groups with nutrient deficiencies, to identify the major sources of different nutrients, and to estimate income and price elasticites of demand for both food and nutrients. The survey data indicates that serious deficiencies in all nutrients exist in Indonesia and that the problem is more one of maldistribution than of an overall shortfall in the availability of foods, tending to affect the poorer households. The importance of rice as a contributor of most nutrients is striking. A household utility-maximization model is used to derive the household's demand for food and hence nutrients. For estimation purposes the double-logarithmic function is used. The paper concludes that there is wide scope for nutrition policies based on changes in incomes and relative prices, as food and nutrition consumption respond rather dramatically to such changes. The data also suggest that, although inadequate diets are a greater problem among poorer households, they are also prevalent among the better-off and better-educated. Alleviating malnutrition in Indonesia is a matter of nutrition education as well as one of raising incomes.

  • Country: Indonesia
  • # Pages: 71
  • Publication Year: 1978
  • Type of Media: Scientific Report

Abstract

Data from the National Socio-economic Survey for 1978 are used to give a profile of poverty in Indonesia. Households are classified into the poor and nonpoor categories according to their levels of per capita consumption, with a breakdown into urban and rural areas of Java and the Outer Islands. Poor and nonpoor households are then compared in terms of their geographical distribution, demographic characteristics, economic and noneconomic activities of individuals, sources of household income, consumption patterns, housing conditions, and schooling and health.

Abstract

Indonesia has achieved one of the most impressive records in fertility reduction over the past two decades. The country's total fertility rate has declined from an estimated 5.5 in 1967 - 1970 to 3.4 in 1987. Population growth has been estimated at 2.1 percent during the eighties. Many observers credit Indonesia's National Family Planning Coordinating Board (BKKBN) as being instrumental in this fertility reduction and slowdown of population growth. BKKBN is a public sector organization responsible for planning and coordination of almost all family planning activities in Indonesia. The study objective is to provide BKKBN and the government of Indonesia with data that can help improve the cost-effectiveness of family planning delivery. The study examines resource allocation, cost, funding institutions, and output of the program at grassroots level in selected regencies in three provinces: West Java, the Special District of Yogyakarta, and South Kalimantan. It is based on data about the program's field operations collected during November 1986 - March 1987, and routine service statistics of BKKBN.

  • Country: Indonesia
  • # Pages: 197
  • Publication Year: 1991
  • Type of Media: Scientific Report

Abstract

This paper evaluates the Profamilia's outreach effort of 1986. Profamilia is an affiliate of the International Planned Parenthood Federation and provides more than 60 percent of Colombia's family planning services. This paper focuses around the question of Profamilia's ability to provide more protection with the same resources. The authors found that: (i) operations tend to be constrained by limited personnel and supplies; (ii) the labor costs and unit costs of contraception are lower in the outreach and clinical programs, which can be expanded with available infrastructure; (iii) the clinical and outreach program is the least cost-effective because of the higher cost of sterilization; (iv) more resources should be targeted to areas where there are proportionately more mothers and where people are better educated; (v) experienced and married workers sell more in the outreach program than their junior unmarried colleagues; and (vi) in both the clinical and surgical programs, output would increase if there were proportionately more nurses and fewer doctors.

  • Country: Colombia
  • # Pages: 113
  • Publication Year: 1991
  • Type of Media: Scientific Report
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